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Full text of "X Collection 1902"



X Collection 
INDEX 



Page:. 



L 



Barcode Number 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 



III! III. II I I I I II III 



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029 767 362 2 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

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029 767 363 4 



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029 767 367 1 



Box Number 



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Total of 
Volumes 



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Call Number 



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X Collection 
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Page:. 



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Barcode Number 



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029 767 369 5 



Box Number 



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Total of 
Volumes 



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3 



Call Number 






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LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

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029 767 370 1 



TVfo 5 



SBE WE>CT fclMpeR. 



THB COMPANIES ACT, 1948 



"te 



tvuN 



5 



flbemoranbum anb 

Hrticles of association 

anb ffi^Xaws 

OF 

THE INSTITUTION OF 
SANITARY ENGINEERS 



(REPRINTED, JUNE, IM4. . 
AMENDED, ItM-IHT. 
REPRINTED, FEBRUARY. I»W. 
REVISED, AS SHOWN IN HEAVY TYPE 

NOVEMBER, IM» AND PRINTED 

MARCH. 1MB.) 



2^00/3/JO 



LOVB AID MAL00M8OS, LTD., BBDBtLL 



• 



- ; 2 it 



REPOR T 
on 
TEE TATER RESOURCES 0E CHARLEVOIX COUNTY 
Submitted to 



EI RECTOR 07 UOT ECONOMIC 
SURVEY 



for the 

DEPARTMENT OE CONSERVATION » 
LANSING, MI CHI GAD. 

CO. Tfislor 
June 1, 1923 



c 



x- 






Sg'EUL STATE.fSIT ACCQKFANHrG ALL REPORTS 
Or WATER RESOURCES MATE AS A 
RESULT OF THE SURVEY NOW 

sun cg:~ t jcie5 ir 

CC r JUNCTION T7ITH THE 

LAND ECONOMIC SURVEY 

DEPARTMENT 

Off 
CONSERVATION 

Respectfully submitted to 

THE DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 
LAHSING, MICHIGAN 

By 
CO. ffisler 
June I, 1923 






REPORT 

JHJ *AUR RESOURCES OT QQjMjW OO'JKTY . MICHIGAN 
Submitted to 






r 



DIRECTOR 
of 
LAED ECONOMIC SURVEY 






for the 



DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 
LAPSING . MICHIGAN 

by 






CO. iriSLSR 
June 1, 192U 



X 



■^ 






REPORT 



THE WATER RESOURCES OF ANTRIM COUNTY 
Submitted to 
H. J. Andrews 
director, Land Economic Survey 
for the 

DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 
LANSING, MICHIGAN 

CO. ffisler 
June 1, 192l| 









REPOR 1 ] 

en 



TTIE WATER RESOURCES OF THE THUNDER BAY RIVER BASIN 
ALPENA COUNTY 



Submitted to 

H.J. Androws 

Director, Land Economic Survey 



for 



DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 
LANSING, MICHIGAN 



by 



CO. Wisler 

June 1,1525 



- 



,.io «* 




c 



#1 5 ' 



on 
?HB '.V ATiS HgSOUKSJ ig Cg ?V2 IflBHOaitiBB KIV3S 
■ in 
MK8QMIK BE CO'CHIY 
Subaatted to 
Mr- I ■ J. A.dreg; 
Direc tor of the land Sconornic ..\. r .yv_ 
i"or 

th s ii.^^H-i usry og_cc:;sjg^A Mas 



C Ulster 
Larch 1926 



X- ■! 224 



SiSS-si-sis 



i . 

and 
THE PCTOR tygygg 
in 

Submit t.-il to 

tftf. L .'■:. Scho anniar..- 
Director of t?.e «v , ?c-\-.-.: 
for 

23! JE*£'7-s5li 1? c orsag e ri;:: 



CO. Tialer 
. c, r. 7. 



i. ; U LL 

Mi 7 



F.SPOflT 
on 
TEg 7ATZR RSSOUKCES OF THE i WJSKCir :- MS 
WAISKA RI7E65 ffi CKIPPEEa COUNTY 
with 
SPMMABISS 
of the 
r&VtIOPES A1TD gy SBVSItOP SD WATER POffER 
in 
CKIFFZ3A, LUCE AJTO MACKINAC COUNTIES 
and 
THE POfER MARKET 
in 
CHIPPEWA COUHTY 

Sutnitted to 
Hr . I,, p.. Schoonmajin 
Director of the Land Econonio Survey 

for 

the depart;^;? of cohsebvaticn 

C.C Visler 
May, 192/. 



(AS u 



REPORT 
ON 
THE WATER RESOURCES OF THE MANISTEE RIVER 
ABOVE SHERMAN 



Respectfully Submitted to 
Mr. L. R. Schoenmann, Director 
Land Economic Survey 
for 
The Department of Conservation 
Lansing, Michigan 
by 
C. 0. Wisler 

June, 192S 



Antrim, Kalkaska, Missaukee, Grand Traverse 
and Wexford Counties 



1 






1 



X- D 224 



REPORT 



on 



THE T7ATER RESOURCES OF ALGER COUNTY 
Respectfully Submitted to 

MR. L. R. SCHOZMANN 
DIRECTOR OF THE LAMP ECONOMIC SURVEY 
for 
the depa?:t.: :;: 7 t of jouszrva tiq:: 
LaasiU:; , '..'.i : m , ;a.a 

C. O. Wisler, 
Kaj 1929 






THE SMOG STORY 




■ur-*^ 




w 



a weekly radio series 




Presented by vaJ y* 

THE LOS ANGELES COUNTY £ 

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DISTRICT Sr 

in conjunction with ^ 

THE AMERICAN BROADCASTING COMPANY 
3" STATION KABC 

October 15 to December 10, 1955 



: 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA CONFERENCE 

ON THE 

ELIMINATION OF AIR POLLUTION 

Ambassador Hotel, Los Angeles 
November 10, 1955 






. i lege ' 



Summation by Dr. Lee A. DuBridge 
Mr. Mu.lendore, ladies, and gentlemen: My task today is a mas, difficult one. 
All of the pope, you hove heard have themselves been summaries a, rathe, extensive work 
end of difficult problems. To g ive a summary of a group of summaries is going » be diffl- 
cu „ indeed, if any of you would like to have my |ob, I would be g .ad to trade place, 

with you at this moment. 

We heard some remarks about miraales jus, a few minutes ago. Miracles are going 
„ be accomplished in the next fifty years, bu, , think we need ,o pause and reflect .no, 
„ these miracle, occur, they will occur only when we ge, the facts firs, Somebody has to 
„*. a discovery, get a new idea. Only on the basis of new ideas do miracles transpire. 
Port of the problem we have been discussing today concerns the new ideas and the new 

problem. 

IS. though, often tha, one of the most unfortunate circumstances about aur Los 

,„ certain mldwestern and eastern cities some twenty or thirty years ago where, on damp, 
fo9 gy days, a soft coo, smoke settled over the city blacking au, the sun and literally tun- 
ing day into night. And , can testify from persona, experience i, also turned white shirts 
into black ones. Those black, sulfurous clouds tha, I have personally lived through, and 

was appropriate . 

The cure for the, kind of smog, while no, easy, was relatively obvious. Simply 
ltop the coal smoke - that is, stop burning soft coo, or install smake eliminator, that 







r- 'V 



SOURCE MATERIALS 




ON AIR POLLUTION CONTROL 

HOR THE SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES OF LOS ANGELES COUNTY 



MR POLLUTION CONTROL DISTRICT • COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES 



> 



r 

P 

ST 



f 



4 - QfcC21 



i 



AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DISTRICT 
Z.34 South San Pedro Street 
Los Angeles 13, California 
Madison 9-4711 

NOTE TO EDITORS: 

. • tanoe of the automobile exhaust problem the attached documents 






S-3 



, {'/// **{' ■■ / "' ^- 

S. Smith Griswold 

Air Follution Control Officer 



am THV OTHER HAND, there may be something to it. 

ON THE OTHEK hai • les County have been 

For many months now the people oi » _ or be tter, an 

l00king to the «£**. ^J^on^JhelSgorie^adevice 
5Sn?3^T£^ i automobUe exhaust as a contrib- 

must breathe their exhalation. 

OT HFRF RELIEVE that this is not a problem which is exclusive 

industry than it is for us. 

THE RESPONSE FROM THE INDUSTRY has been a general 
a^enf^prLise.andthelaun^ofapr^ramtodevelop 

K PoUu^contro Hor Ujeau^o Wj--^ Association 
Many months ago he Autom^ manufacturers agreed 

made known to the people of this county. 

TT IS OUR FEELING that the industry, which has produced so 

T?Zl'wto<°™ to tUt ,M a .mail portton of W »<■»" 

Wo fli-p beginning to wonder, though, wneuiei uw •» 
. indust^conSders a matter as unprofitable as the public welfare 
Wo be worth this effort and expense. 

SMITH GRISWOLD 

Air Pollution Control Officer 



u tomotive industry . 

Dilution Foundation, as a result 
a.ted as follows: 

s to be that it is up to the 
corrective device, or 
ns; then, the industry 
;vices. " 

ioned your Air Pollution Control 



.tive industry in developmental 
finally instigated by efforts of 
ol District, there have been 
ticipated in by members of the 
ution Control District. In 
Iministrative Officer have 
ndustry's progress. Con- 
the contention that the 
r the Los Angeles community 
3n the smog problem. 

:onsiderably disturbed by the 
istry appeared to have 



/ 



V 



\ 



on's Newsletter, the District 
n reversed its position and 

:heless, your Air Pollution 

— 



V 



> 



EMEN T INFORMATION 



i 



TECHNIQUES OF TESTING FOR AIR CONTAMINANTS v Lo Cc \ 1r\ ^ 



^ 



FRCM COMBUSTION SOURCES 



By 



Carl V. Kanter, Robert G. Lunche, and Albert P. Fudurich 



ABSTRACT 




The organization of the Source Tosting 
Section in the Research Division of the 
Air Pollution Control District is 
described. The procedures used in initi- 
ating a test request, making arrangements 
for conducting the test, and selecting 
the proper sampling location are given. 

Methods used in testing combustion sources 
such as incinerators and boilers are dis- 
cussed, including measurements of stack 
gas velocities, and collection and analy- 
sis of particulate and gaseous contaminants. 

Calculations involved in the test procedures 
are given, with illustrations using typical 
test data. 

Results of tests and analyses of combustion 
sources are tabulated to show the relation- 
ship between materials burned, burning 
rates and emission of contaminants. 



16-20M12 
4/12/56 






X 
VaJ 

R 









LOt ANGELES COUNTY 
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DISTRICT 
Testimony 
of 
Smith Griswold, Air Pollution Control Officer 
Dr. Leslie A. Chambers, Director of Pesearch 

and 
Hoyt R. Crabaugh, Director of Engineering 

before 
The Select Committee on Small Businesses 
of the House of Representatives 
at Los Angeles, Calif., 
Kay 13 and 19, 1956 



/' 



u 




THE AIR POLLUTION PROBLEM 






by L. A. DuBRIDGE 
President, California Institute of Technology 



Some plain words about smog— what it is, where it 

comes from, who's to blame and what we can do about it— by the 

new chairman of the Board of the Air Pollution Foundation 



ONE OF OUR IJIGGEST HANDICAPS in the fight 
for clean air in Los Angeles has been the fact 
that our air pollution is called "smog." The term "smog" 
originated in certain midwestern and eastern cities where 
— twenty years or more ago — on damp, foggy winter 
days a black pall of soft-coal smoke settled over the 
city, blanking out the sun and literally turning day into 
night. Those black, sulfurous clouds were a mixture of 
coal smoke and fog. and the name "smog" was a nat- 
ural one. 

The cure for that kind of smog, although it was not 
easy, was obvious- -namely, stop the smoke! That is. 
-top burning soft coal or else put in smoke eliminator-. 
And so in St. Louis. Pittsburgh and other cities the fac- 
tories put in eliminators and better combustion con- 
trols; the apartment houses and private homes switched 
from soft coal to hard coal or to oil or gas. \nd 
presto! The smog stopped! 

Hut Los \ngeles begins where Pittsburgh and St. 
Louis left off. We have not burned soft coal here for 
fifty vears. Our worst smoggv davs are like bright, clear 



sunshine compared to a good old-fashioned St. Louis 
smog. Even today there is plenty of air pollution in 
every major city in the nation. 

The Los Angeles air pollution problem is more serious 
than some, not because we are "dirtier" than other 
cities, but only because Mother Mature, in providing us 
such a nice climate, failed to provide southern Cali- 
fornia with adequate ventilation. Hence, we must be 
much cleaner than anyone else needs to be. 

liecause old-fashioned eastern smog was largely 
caused by one thing- namely, soft coal- -we in the 
West also, at hrst. looked for a simple single cause for 
mn I nmble. In 1942- 15 everyone was sure that the 
wartime synthetic rubber plants were the major culprit. 
Possibly, then, they were. Rut by 1915 they were clean- 
ed up or shut down, vet the air pollution persisted. Then 
we went after sulfur. Expensive equipment was built to 
remove sulfur from the stack gases of refineries and 
other industrial plants. This too was probably a good 
thing to do. but the pollution problem persisted. Nor 
did the elimination of many of the principal sources of 



Reprinted from Engineering and Science Monthly. December 1955. 
I'lthlished at the California Institute of Technology . 







CI- 



ABOUT SMOG 



A REPORT TO THE PEOPLE 

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DISTRICT ■ COUNTY Of LOS ANGELES • 434 Sou.h Son Pedro . Lo, Ang.l.s 13, Co.ifornia . MAdison 9-4711 

Late in December of last year a number of steps were inaugurated which have led to the 
complete reorganization of the Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control District, and to 
the adoption, modification, or enlargement of key programs designed to curb the problem 
of atmospheric pollution in the Los Angeles Basin. 

These steps were taken on the assumption that the community must be provided with an 
orqanization fully capable of translating its collective wants into the effective action 
that is possible only through complete use of the specialized skills and knowledges of 
the -hemist, the engineer, the researcher, the meteorologist, and the law enforcement 
officer It was to this task of forging an effective instrument of community self-interest 
that the reorganization efforts were directed. This goal has now been successfully 
accomplished . 

These efforts have been undertaken under the stimulus of the compelling realization that 
now, more than ever before, bold and aggressive measures are required if we are ever to 
realize the complete conquest of smog. 

OUR LIMITED AIR SUPPLY 

It is with some measure of disbelief that most of us come to the awful realization that here 
in Los Angeles our traditionally abundant supply of clean, fresh air no longer exists - ana 
that very real limitations must be placed on the use of a natural resource once considered 
inexhaustible . 

Though we live surrounded by a sea of air more than 200 miles deep, our living zone is 
confined to but the narrow layer of its lower few feet. 

Under ordinary conditions, the flow of currents and eddies continually replenishes man's 
living zone and carries off the waste products to be diluted in the giant reservoir of the 
sky When conditions are not ordinary -- when human activities become concentrated 
and accelerated, or the climate and geography restrict the flowing of currents - th.s 
replenishment slows, or ceases. Then waste products accrue rapidly. 

So it is in Los Angeles, where we have come to realize the agonizing first symptoms of 
drowning in our own wastes. 

In the Los Angeles Basin our climate and geography have imposed a real and observable 
restriction on our natural air supply. The temperature inversion, a layer of warm air over 
cooler air, has ceased to become a roof keeping out the inclemencies of weather and has 
now become a ceiling, clamped down tightly on a crowded room and forcing our air-borne 
waste products back into our living zone . And our winds, the weakest and most variable 
found in any major metropolitan area, lack the velocity to provide rapid evacuation of 
these contaminants from the Basin . They serve instead to accumulate and concentrate 



^ 



16-20D86 



UNIQUE APPLICATIONS F 
AIR POLLUTION C ONIROl DEVICES 1 



L» lev (\\ 



John L. Mills? 
Leo E. EallanjJ 
Eric E. Lemke^ c 
Robert J. MacKnight? 




* - 



The control of air pollution has been kept at high efficiency 
in Los Angeles County, and at the same time the cost of com- 
plying with air pollution control regulations has been reduced 
in a number of instances by the ingenious application of known 
principles. As a result, there are a number of installations 
which can be classed as unique. Four of these will be discussed. 
The installations include a portable multiple chamber incinerator 
used by a building contractor, a wet multiple cyclone used to 
control dust from an asphaltic concrete batching plant, a fume 
collection system for the mold pouring floor at a brass foundry 
and a low voltage electrostatic precipitator used to control 
oil mists from an asphalt roofing paper manufacturing plant. 
Each installation will be described separately. 



A PORTABLE MUITIPLF, CHAMBER INCINERATOR 



A portable multiple chamber incinerator built 
Angeles has been found to be a practical solut 
trash disposal problem. Open burning on job 
the usual method of rubbish disposal in tract 
In spite of the frecuency of excessive smoke, 
contractors to control air pollution have usua 
toward reducing rubbish pile sizes, improving 
lighting fires and supervising the burning ope 



recently in Los 
ion to a difficult 
sites has been 
home development, 
past efforts of 
lly been directed 
the methods of 
rations closely. 



Orange 


or< 


shards 


room ft 


3r • 


tracts 


value and 


const 


addition, 


durin 


a pile 


of 


waste 


bustibles 


smoun 


tracts 


fn 


squent 


amount 


of 


rubbi 



are frequently torn out in Los Angeles to make 
of homes. The uprooted trees are of little 
itute a large source of combustible refuse. In 
g the building of one house, there is produced 

wood, tar, tar paper, cardboard and other com- 
ting to from ?00 to 1000 pounds. Since individual 
ly contain 200 to *+00 or more bouses, the total 
sh to be disposed of becomes a considerable item, 



1. Presentated at the Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution 
Control Association in Buffalo, New York, May 1956 

2. John L. Kills, Principal Engineer Air Pollution Control 

3. Leo E. Kalian, Senior Engineer District, County of 
k. Eric E. Lemke, Senior Engineer Los Angeles 

5. Robert J. MacKnight, Senior Lngineer 



• 



16-20M18 






653 



•WAR ON SMOG REPORT 

A DISCUSSION OF THE SMOG PROBLEM 

Reprinted from 

THE LOS ANGELES HERALD • EXP RESS 









AIR FLOW STUDIES OF DAYS OF HEAVY SMOG II LOS ANGELES 

by 
R.G. Holmes, E.K. Kauper, A.B. Street, J.R.jJaylor 

Abstract 




Air paths associated with heavy pollution concentrations in 
the Los Angeles area have been traced by means of wind reports 
from a network of 6W stations in the Los Angeles Basin. Traject- 
ories have been constructed for heavy smog situations from 1952 
to 1955 5 showing the routes taken by air parcels from the time 
they crossed the coast-line until they arrived at an air sampling 
station, loaded with pollution. These air paths are summarized 
according to the area of the Basin involved as a source region of 
the pollution. In addition, the months of August 1952 and 1953 
were similarly studied. In these cases, all days were involved, 
both smoggy and clear. The results of this study are compared 
with those of the selected smoggy days. To check on whether 
the air flow as pictured by the surface wind reports represented 
the actual flow of the pollution, two methods were used; (1) 
measurement of the wind above the surface by means of slow ascent 
pilot balloons, (2) fluorescent tracer tests. These studies 
have indicated the usefulness of the trajectories derived from 
the surface wind reports. 



y 

. 

i v • 
16-20M2 






AI^ MONITORING OF THE LOS ANGELES ATMOSPHERE 
WITH AUTOMATIC INSTRUMENTS 

J. Cyril Romanovsky, James R. Taylor, Robert D. Maophee 
and Janet E. Dickinson 



ABSTRACT ** 



Air monitoring of the Los Angeles Basin 
for atmospheric pollutants is being con- 
ducted at l£ stations covering an area 
of 1,000 square miles. The program pro- 
vides data for the District's alert 
system, for the zoning of industry, for 
research into the many chemical reactions 
occurring in the air, and finally it gives 
a measure of the yearly progress in the 
fight against smog. The several automatic 
instruments used for this purpose are 
described in this paper, together with 
comments on their accuracy and a descrip- 
tion of maintenance problems. 



X 

\ 

16-20LQ6 "-£" • 



1 



This is a reprint fron Business Week Magazine of the July 7, 1956 issue. 




Air Pollution Control District 

Public Information & Education Division 

434. South San Pedro Street 

Los Angeles 13, California 

MAdison 9-4711 






motors, the refiners are turning to new chemical 
processes and pouring more than a billion dollars 
into new plants like the one at the left. 



When you drive up to a modern 
service station today, chances are you 
can bu\ a premium grade fuel that uites 
close to 100 octane. That's a gasoline 
roughly comparable to aircraft fuel. But 
because of the high-powered automo- 
bile engines coming out of Detroit. 100 
octane is no longer strictly for the bnd- 
mcn. A good many of the cars on the 
road a few years from now may not be 
able to run without it. 

I. The Spur 

Many car engines being made today 
are high compression jobs rated at 200 
horsepower and higher. That means 
thev squeeze the mixture of gasoline 
and air in their cylinders to 4 or A its 
normal volume before it is exploded to 
produce power. These compression 
ratios come close to equaling those 
in aircraft powerplants. They compare 
with compressions of 5-to-l and 6-to-l 
on automobiles only a couple of years 
older (chart). And, to push engine 
efficiency higher, compression ratios will 
keep ciimbing-perhaps as high as 
1 2 to- 1 or H-to-1. 

It is these higher compression ratios 
that make higher octane gasoline a 
necessity. Each boost in the ratio re- 
quires a better performing gasoline. So 
the refiners are going to have to hit the 
market with higher quality fuel before 
the hot engines hit the road. And the 
fuel market is a big one-last year motor- 
ists and truck operators spent over $12- 
billion for fuel. 

• Difficulty-The octane race poses this 
problem for the gasoline makers: How 
to produce a greater proportion of high 
octane fuel from a given amount of 
crude oil without breaking through the 
roof on costs. When you get up in the 
high octane ranges, it is an expensive 
proposition to push the rating up. A 
recent survev by Ethyl Corp. showed 
that the average premium gasoline sold 
in the U.S. in June was 97 octane: for 
regular, it was 90. At this high level, 
processing costs mav rise as much as 
12* to 15* per barrel to raise the oc- 
tane a single point. 



The refiners are turning to new 
chemical processes and expensive equip- 
ment to lick this problem. The latest 
octane-boosting process to get into pro- 
duction is Esso's Powerforming unit 
pictured at the left. The Linden (N. J.) 
plant will process 20,000 barrels of gaso- 
line a dav. Its part of Esso's S60-mil- 
lion investment program centered on 
the new process. 

But that's only a small part of the 
octane-boosting program of the oil in- 
dustry. To meet market demand for 
higher octanes that's expected to de- 
velop bv 1965, the industry will lay out 
an estimated S1.5-billion for gasoline 
plants. 

• Market Flurry- Already high octane 
gasolines from new refining processes 
are causing a marketing flurry (BW— 
Mar.V56.p32). Sun Oil is test market- 
ing a special dispensing system that lets 
vou dial one of five grades of gasoline. 
And Esso service stations recently blos- 
somed with a gilded third pump in 
their line-up. The new pump spews 
Golden Esso Extra- 100-plus octane gas 
intended for cars with compression 
ratios that range upward from 9-to-l. 
At mid-June, Esso reported that its 
golden gas was accounting for 22% of 
sales volume at selected test stations 
that were the first to get the gilded 
pumps. 

Other gasoline makers, such as Sin- 
clair, are hesitant about introducing a 
third grade of fuel, prefer to boost the 
octane of their present premium and 
regular grades of gas. 

II. Basic Chemistry 

To understand what's involved n 
producing higher octane gasolines, you 
have to know a little bit about the 
chemistry of gasoline. All gasolines are 
blends of a variety of hydrogen and car- 
bon compounds processed from crude 
oils. 

About 97% of gasolines sold con- 
tain tetracthvl lead, which can boost 
the octane by 10 points. Other addi- 
tives, such as tricresvl phosphate (Shell 
TCP), arc sometimes mixed in to dis- 



Such a fuel can be produced, but it's 
not feasible to do it on a large-scale, 
mostly because of the high cost. Re- 
finers, however, use this pure fuel as a 
standard for measuring the perform- 
ance of other blends. The octane num- 
ber scale rates other fuels according to 
anti-knock qualities. The more a fuel 
resists uneven burning, premature igni- 
tion, or too rapid burning, the higher 
its octane number. 

Strictly speaking, octane can't go 
above 100. But since the standard was 
set up, newer fuels have been developed 
that go wav bevond 100% iso-octane in 
performance. For this reason, some 
KfiiKr> think it's time to re|igger the 
rating svstem. 

• New Blends-But today's fuels with 
an octane rating near 100 are a far cry, 
in chemical structure, from the standard 

test fuel. Thev are a blend of hydro- 
carbons of \anous weights and con- 
figurations that have been torn apart, 
reshaped and put together again by 
some of the most complex chemical 
procc>>ing operations used in industry 
When vou get crude from the wells, 
it's a thick black soup made up of 
thousands of different chemical com- 
pounds. And the compositions of crudes 
differ widelv in their content of gasoline 
range materials. Some contain large 
amounts of impurities that poison or 
corrode processing equipment. These 
must go through purification processes 

before they are distilled into the frac- 
tions that begin to resemble final prod- 
ucts such as gasoline and fuel oil. 
• Distillation— The basic step in any 
lefining process is distillation, which 
amounts to boiling off different hy- 
drocarbons in the crude mix. When 
you heat a batch of crude, the first 
products to boil off are the so-called 
light ends, such as methane, ethane, 
and butane (some of which are gaseous 
at normal temperature and pressure). 

As the temperature of the crude 
goes up. the pcxt products to boil off . 
are the straight run gasolines or virgin . 
naphthas. 'ITiese usually have an octane 
rating between 40 and bO. Thev were ( 
fine for the Model T. but don't rate 
high enough for modern engines. 

After the gasolines, the kerosene- 






BASIC DATA ON AIR POLLUTION CONTROL 
IN LOS ANGELES COUNTY 




^Ca*V-.i$$$ 



Martin A. Brower 
Editor 



February 1, 1956 



Public Information and Education Division 
Air Pollution Control District, County of Los Angeles 
U3U So. San Pedro Street, Los Angeles 13, Calif ornia 



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?S 

"5 



AIR CONTAMINANTS AS FACTORS IN \ j\ 

INDUSTRIAL LAND USE PLANNING AND ZONING 



by 
Arthur A. Atkisson, Jr. 
Public Services Officer 
Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control District 

before the 
American Institute of Planners, 
Northern California Section 

July 21, 1956 
at San Jose, California 



^ 4 " UtL2l 



irzn 



INTROD UCTION: 

There are many types and kinds of air pollution problems. 

From a quantitative point of view, these may be considered as ranging from mere 
nuisance problems involving highly local areas, to the mass contamination of air 
supplies for whole metropolitan areas. 

From a qualitative standpoint these pollution problems may range from a single 
adverse affect from a single contaminant - such as the coal smoke or soot problems 
of Pittsburgh and St. Louis - to a combination of effects resulting from the 
interaction of many kinds of contaminants — as in Los Angeles. 

Traditionally, the solutions to these problems, however simple or complex they 
may be, hav* involved the following elements: 

1. The identification of the contaminants causing the difficulty. 

2. The identification of the sources from which they are derived. 






3. The establishment of reasonable standards designed to lessen the ^_ c> 
outflow of the contaminants from their sources — and thus lessen 
or eliminate the concentrations found in the atmosphere. . ■ . 

P 



r> 



/ 



- 



THE OPERATION AND USE OF THE TITRILOG AND AUTOMETER \^ { Q \§{\ 

By 

Janet E. Dickinson 



ABSTRACT 



The purpose of this presentation is to describe 
the operation and uses of the two most commonly em- 
ployed automatic instruments now available for the 
measurement of sulfur dioxide. These are Consoli- 
dated Engineering Corporation's Titrilog and the 
Autometer, developed by M. D. Thomas and associates, 
and manufactured by Leeds and Northrup Company. The 
operating principles of each instrument are outlined 
briefly; some of the advantages and disadvantages of 
each are discussed; a few of the difficulties which 
may be encountered in normal operftion of each are 
described; and suggestions offered for the most 
effective use of each instrument. 




16-20M1 



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X-TO905